Hosea is often seen as a prophet of doom, but underneath his message of destruction is a promise of restoration. In the hebrew bible, hosea son of beeri, was an 8thcentury bc prophet in israel who authored. Hoseas job was to speak these words during a time when they had been essentially forgotten. While some interpreters have thought the story to be merely an allegory of the relation between god and israel, others claim, more plausibly, that the story is to be taken literally. Some of the most significant prophecies in the bible, about israel and its end time affairs, are to be found within this book. Some of those teachings pertain to the role of jesus christ in his life here on earth. Hosea s time frame corresponds to 2 kings 14and onward in that book, 1 chronicles 2 and 2 chronicles 2 and onward in those books. The period of hosea s ministry extended to some sixty years, and he was the only prophet of israel of his time who left any written prophecy. Hosea, prophecies of definition and meaning bible dictionary. He is one of the twelve prophets of the jewish hebrew bible, also known as the minor prophets of the christian old testament.
Hosea is the first book of the twelve minor prophets. Hosea book of kittos popular cyclopedia of biblial. Hosea is the first of the prophets in the book of the twelve prophets in. The book of hosea is one of the four books that come to us from prophets who were active during the eighth century b. Historical background of hoseaassyria steven hovater.
He explores the time period in which hosea ministered, known details about the prophet himself, linguistic elements of the book to include the genre of prophetic speech, matters of theological importance, and the transmission of hosea s prophetic message. Hosea revealed little about his background, though his book of prophecy offers a few. Book of hosea, also spelled osee, the first of 12 old testament books that bear the names of the minor prophets, considered as one book, the twelve, in the jewish canon. The book of hosea, the first of the canonical twelve minor prophets, was written by hosea whose name means salvation, or deliverance, a prophet who lived during the last years of the age of jeroboam ii in israel and the period of decline and ruin that followed the brief period of economic prosperity. Yahweh was coming from zion to judge the nations for their rebellion against the creator of the earth. Martin collins, reminding us that hosea has sometimes been referred to as the deathbed prophet of israel, nevertheless assures us that the end of the book is filled with hope and a happy conclusion. When this is true it all too easily leads to compromise, selfish ambition, and lack of integrity in ones personal activities and dealings. Setting the prophesies of hosea cover a time period from about 753 bc to 715 bc, during the reigns of jeroboam ii and uzziah, through that of hezekiah. Hosea was instructed by god to marry a certain woman and experience with her a domestic life which was a dramatization of the sin and unfaithfulness of israel. The book of hosea was written in the northern kingdom of israel in the eighth century bc, during the reign of jeroboam ii 786746 bc. Hoseas primary audience was ephraim another name for the northern kingdom, israel, which is mentioned 35 times in the book. Hosea, a prophet from the northern kingdom, preached in his homeland, which he addresses as israel, jacob or, frequently, ephraim.
We are the beloved sons and daughters of the living god. During this time, gods people were divided into two nations. Hosea the prophet lived during the tragic and devastating final days of the northern kingdom. Abstract the book of hosea portrays the dangers of the observance of religious ceremony without genuine devotion and commitment to the lord. About reconsidering the date and provenance of the book of hosea. Hosea, prophet amazing bible timeline with world history. The superscription of the book determines the length of time during which hosea prophesied.
Isaiah and hosea were among those that prophesied at the same time. Hosea prophesied to israel and judah during the decades surrounding the fall of samaria to the assyrian empire. Not only does the book of hosea provide an example of gods love to a people who have left god behind, but it also shows us what forgiveness and restoration look like in a close relationship. It seems that hosea lived beyond the captivity of israel in 722 since hezekiahs reign is mentioned. Date and time of hosea hoseas message was primarily for the northern kingdom of israel, although he occasionally refers to the southern kingdom of judah. Hosea goes back and forth between judgments and the call of repentance between chapters 11 and 14. The significant feature is that he ministered during the latter half of the eighth century. At the time of the exodus, the israelites tried to pass through edom newsletter icon. Hosea was the home missionary of north israel, as jonah was their foreign. Four of those were assassinated, and the throne of assyria also changed hands three different times.
Hosea was the son of beeri and apparently belonged to the upper classes. That was an extremely fluid period of time for israel politically, with seven different kings sitting on the throne of during that period of time. Obviously, hosea began his ministry as a young man and lived a fairly long life. Hosea is the only prophet of israel who left any written prophecies which were recorded during the later years of his life. The prophesies of hosea cover a time period from about 753 bc to 715 bc, during the reigns of jeroboam ii and uzziah, through that of hezekiah. Nothing is known of the prophets life excepting what may be gained from his book. Throughout the book you will see that he refers to israel and ephraim.
Before the inspiring conclusion of the book, hosea. The book of hosea has at least two perplexing problems. The book of hosea was likely written between 755 and 725 b. Amos threatened gods judgment on israel at the hands of an unnamed enemy. Even as the lord loves the people of israel, though they turn to other gods and are fond of raisin cakes hosea 3. Gods beloved sons and daughters we who have come by faith to christ fulfill the promise of hosea. True worship has all but disappeared from the northern tentribe kingdom of israel. The time period of hoseas ministry 750s to 710s bc began during the years of prosperity and false security described in the introduction to amos. The story of hosea and what it teaches about god and holy. Now while the quoted text does not clearly specify that this is the same woman he is to love, the overall.
Questions from the book of hosea bibleforums christian. Introduction hosea the prophet hosea was a prophet who lived and prophesied just before the destruction of israel in 722 bc. Very little is known about hosea, since he is never mentioned outside this book that bears his name. Hosea 1 niv the word of the lord that came to hosea. The probable cause of the location of hosea may be the thoroughly national character of his oracles, their length, their earnest tone, and vivid representations. Hosea, the son of beeri, prophesied for quite some time, from 785 to 725 b. This period was an extremely difficult time in israels history, just before the northern kingdom went into exile. Abstract the book of hosea portrays the dangers of the observance of religious. The cycle of repentance, redemption, and restoration evident in hoseas. Before we jump into hosea, i think it is so important to understand the context of hosea s time and. The book of hosea is one of the books of the hebrew bible. He tentatively proposes that hosea s prophecies were preserved in written form by the time of the destruction of samaria p. Hosea esv the word of the lord that came to bible gateway. The exact time of his death is unknown, although it seems likely that he.
The first six minor prophets hosea the book of hosea, the first of the canonical twelve minor prophets, was written by hosea whose name means salvation, or deliverance, a prophet who lived during the last years of the age of jeroboam ii in israel and the period of decline and ruin that followed the brief period of economic. Hosea appears to have had the temperament of a poet. His writings form the first of the old testament books of the minor prophets. Explain how the kingdom of israel, after solomon, divided into northern and southern kingdom. Hosea was a biblical prophet in the land of israel and spoke the messages of the lord. Intro to hosea biblica the international bible society. Under the rulership of jeroboam ii, there is material prosperity in israel, but that wanes soon after his death. We were once not his people, but now we gods beloved children. Audience and purpose hosealike elijah, elisha, and amosaddressed the northern kingdom of israel primarily. The book of hosea is a loose collection of the prophets oracles. The book of hosea portrays the dangers of the observance of religious ceremony without genuine devotion and commitment to the lord. The book of hosea is one of the books of the minor prophets in the old testament of the bible. He prophesied to the people of israel during the years that uzziah, jotham, ahaz and kezekiah were kings of judah and when jeroboam ii was king of israel. Sep 10, 2012 hosea was a biblical prophet in the land of israel and spoke the messages of the lord.
The tenday period of repentance, a return to the lord, from rosh hashanah to the. Those who assume old testament wisdom literature is best ascribed to the greek period will trace hosea 14. Probably the life, or rather the prophetic career, of hosea extended from b. The history of the northern kingdom then spiraled downward quite swiftly. The book reveals the personality of the prophet, an emotional man who in a moment could swing from violent anger to the deepest tenderness. This book stands first in order among the minor prophets. This period was an extremely difficult time in israels history, just before the northern. The book begins with a lions roar that withers fertile pastures amos 1.
Biblical literature the first six minor prophets britannica. Amos, like hosea, accuses israel of idolatry, but the main burden of his accusation is about the results of social injustice connected to their idolatry. He asserts that even if this were not the case, the writing as a whole should be interpreted in light of that time period p. According to the superscription, hosea began his prophetic activity during the reign of jeroboam ii c. According to the book of hosea, he married gomer, the daughter of diblaim, but she proved to be unfaithful. Book of hosea overview insight for living ministries. Now while the quoted text does not clearly specify that this is the same woman he is. The book of hosea contains a number of yhwh prophecies and messages for both judah and northern israel samaria. According to the traditional order of most hebrew bibles, it is the first of the twelve minor prophets set around the fall of the northern kingdom of israel, the book of hosea denounces the worship of gods other than yahweh, metaphorically comparing israels abandonment of yahweh to a.
Hosea is a book depicting the relationship god desires for us and helps us become aware of ways in which we can stumble. As we begin our study, i would like to give you an introduction to the life and times of hosea, so we can properly place the book. Hosea was active as a prophet over the 25 years or so of this process, from about 750722 bc. Hosea prophesied during a dark and melancholic era of israels history, the period of the northern kingdoms decline and fall in. He is thought to have prophesied around the eighth century bc with his ministry following amos the prophets. If this becomes characteristic of society at large, dishonesty and corruption become endemic. In addition, isaiah and micah were prophesying during this same time period. The remainder of the book of hosea consists of a collection of miscellaneous statements expressing hosea s convictions concerning the character of yahweh and yahwehs relation to the people of israel. This study argues that the book of hosea ought to be understood and read as a text that was composed in persian period yehud rather than in eighthcentury israel. Hosea must have been a relatively young man when he became a prophet. The book of hosea stands first in the division of the bible called the book of the twelve in the apocrypha cf. The book of hosea, the first of the canonical twelve minor prophets, was written by hosea whose name means salvation, or deliverance, a prophet who lived during the last years of the age of jeroboam ii in israel and the period of decline and ruin that.
Jereboam ii died about 753 and hezekiah began his reign about 715. Jeroboam ii was on the throne, and israel was at the height of its earthly splendor. What follows is a period of unrest and political instability. Hosea s job was to speak these words during a time when they had been essentially forgotten. Hosea began his mission in a period of prosperity, the last years of jeroboam ii 783743 b. Audience and purpose hosea s primary audience was ephraim another name for the northern kingdom, israel, which is mentioned 35 times in the book. Interlinear bible bible commentaries bible lexicon topical bible bible summary bible outline bible timeline childrens bible bible hub homepage. The prophecies of hosea were delivered in the kingdom of israel. Hosea pronounces many judgments against israel, and he states that god is going to destroy israels statues and idols. Book of hosea old testament britannica encyclopedia britannica.
From the contents of jobs book we can work out an approximation, to within about 150 years, of the period of time in which he lived. May 30, 2011 hosea was active as a prophet over the 25 years or so of this process, from about 750722 bc. Top 5 commentaries on the book of hosea ligonier ministries. His prophecy began with jeroboam ii, when the northern kingdom of israel was at its zenith, and continued for the next 40 years until just before samaria fell to assyria in 722 b. Hosea had a lengthy period of ministry, prophesying ca. The marital life of hosea and his wife, gomer, provide the rich metaphor which clarifies the themes of the book. This period was the most turbulent and trying time in the history of israel prior to the captivity.
Ephraim was the largest tribe in israel and sometimes the whole nation was referred to as ephraim. He was the only one of the writing prophets to come from the northern kingdom israel, and his. Some 200 years before hosea s time the ten tribes had seceded and set up and independent kingdom, with the golden calf as its official national god. What was the focus of isaiah in the 1st and 2nd half of the book.
Reconsidering the date and provenance of the book of hosea. Jan 02, 2020 hosea is the only prophet of israel who left any written prophecies which were recorded during the later years of his life. In the hebrew bible, hosea, son of beeri, was an 8thcentury bc prophet in israel who authored the book of prophecies bearing his name. Its name is taken from the prophet hosea, who lived in the northern kingdom between 755 and 725 bc. Nevertheless, hoseas message was more than solemn warnings. With this as a background, the reader of this commentary has a better understanding of. The talmud claims that he was the greatest prophet of his generation. The book of hosea illustrates that no one is beyond the offer of our forgiveness because no one sits outside gods offer of forgiveness. Interlinear bible bible commentaries bible lexicon topical. Major themes of hosea are spiritual adultary, knowledge. He appears on the bible timeline poster around the 8th century b. The first concerns the nature of the story told inchs. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Highlights from the book of hosea watchtower online library. After an unspecified period of time, god instructs hosea, give your love to a woman beloved of a paramour, an adulteress. As we begin our study, i would like to give you an introduction to the life and times of hosea, so we can properly place the book in its historical context. The period of hoseas ministry extended to some sixty years, and he was the only prophet of israel of his time who. Two looks at israels covenant failure bibleproject. That period was both long and eventful, commencing in the days, of jeroboam, the son of joash, extending through the lives of uzziah, jotham, ahaz, and concluding in the reign of hezekiah.958 430 600 180 1651 781 158 478 387 350 1444 930 19 845 256 595 1275 1164 358 415 371 1394 1441 316 561 1522 627 692 540 1435 152 622 1418 679 405